Microscope image: microbead amongst sand particles
What are microbeads?
Microbeads are tiny particles of plastic less than 1mm in size that can be spherical or irregular in shape and are produced in a multitude of colours.
Microbeads are manufactured for use in consumer products such as body and face scrubs as an exfoliant, to produce a “feel good factor”.
The types of plastic most commonly used as microbeads are:
polyethylene (PE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP)
What problems do microbeads cause?
Plastic microbeads are contributing to the increasing flow of plastic into our oceans. These unnecessary microscopic pieces of plastic are contributing to the unhealthy ‘plastic soup’ contaminating our seas.
When used as directed, microbeads are washed down drains and into waste water systems where they are known to pass through these treatment facilities and are consequently flushed out to sea.
A major concern with microbeads is that because of their small size, they have a large surface area to volume ratio, so as a consequence of their use, huge numbers of readymade, highly efficient toxic accumulators are being intentionally released into the environment.
Microplastics in the marine environment are known to accumulate toxic contaminants – persistent organic pollutants such as pesticides, flame retardants and industrial chemicals.
Food chain contamination
A 2013 study found that phytoplankton and zooplankton at the base of the food chain can ingest microplastic particles. Having plastic in their diet could “negatively impact” the health of the marine life, the study concluded.
This video was made at the University of Plymouth showing the size of both plankton and plastic particles, and ingestion during a laboratory simulation.
How long have microbeads been used?
Microbeads were patented in the 1970s, but have only been used as a disposable entity in consumer products since the 1990s.
There have been many thousands of brands worldwide that use plastic as the scrubbing, bulking or polisher agent in their personal care products. The microbeads were added to personal care products such as face washes, exfoliators, cosmetics, shaving creams, lotions, toothpastes, shampoos and sunscreens.
As a result of NGO and consumer action calling for non-plastic ingredients to be removed from personal care products, more and more companies have replaced plastic microbeads with natural materials as the exfoliating ingredient.
Hong Kong microplastic sample separated by HKU. Note the wedge of spherical-shaped microbeads in the lower left of the petri dish
Global Microbead Legislation
An increase in peer reviewed published research, and reports from the United Nations Environment Program has raised awareness of the effects of microbeads to a level that resulted in the US government introducing the Microbead Free Waters Act (2015), becoming the first country to ban the sale of personal care products containing plastic microbeads. Many countries have since introduced legisaltion on microbeads in personal care products (see the list pictured below). Other countries are also encouraging companies to voluntarily phase out plastic microbeads.
In the US, this ban gave a time frame for manufacturers to phase out microbeads from their products, from 2017-2019. In Canada, microbeads were added to the List of Toxic Substances, allowing the government to regulate microbeads under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act.
Along with the research on microbreads, the relentless organised pressure from NGOs, community groups and concerned citizens forced the government to act. This was a big win for the environment and for activists.
There are numerous natural alternatives to use instead of plastic microbeads. These include crushed nuts and shells, salt, charcoal, sand, sugar, pumice and oatmeal to name a few.
What is happening in Hong Kong?
A.S. Watson Group release their position on plastic microbeads
Ahead of potential legislation, A.S. Watson took the positive step to ban the use of microplastic in rinse-off Own Brand cosmetics/personal care scrub products development since 2014. Since January 2020, they have stopped selling any rinse-off personal care products containing microbeads. Read their statement here.
On August 22, 2016, SaSa published their position on microbeads. Read their statement here
The government commissioned a consultancy paper on the issue of microbeads in personal care and cosmetic products (PCCP) in April 2018. The government has accepted the recommendation to implement a voluntary scheme for the phase out of microbeads in PCCP. The plan is to roll out the voluntary scheme in the second half of 2020, including the establishment of a ‘Microbead-Free Charter’. Read the Press Release
Safe, non-plastic alternatives are available and widely used by many leading brands.
There is growing international pressure for companies to ensure that their products are not only safe for their customers to use but also safe for the environment that their products may ultimately end up in.
The scrub products containing plastic pollute by the nature of their design. There is no way that the producers can ensure the product they manufacture (and profit from) will not pollute the environment.
Did You Know?
More than 60% of the 150 samples collected by Plastic Free Seas from Hong Kong seawater in 2016/17 were found to contain plastic microbeads. The HKU scientists analysing the data found 380,000 microbeads per square kilometre of seawater around the city.
Did You Know?
In 2013, Plastic Free Seas initiated an online microbead campaign in Hong Kong with a goal to ban microbead sales. To reach this goal we have worked with scientists, schools the community and met with government many times.
Did You Know?
Prior to a change in formulation removing polyethylene as the main scrub ingredient, a popular 130gm scrub product contained 1,476 million plastic particles!
That equated to 17,000 plastic beads down the drain for every wash.
Did You Know?
Scientists estimated in 2016 that there were 342.2 billion plastic microbeads emitted to the coastal waters off Hong Kong. This is equivalent to 9.4 billion microbeads flushed out to sea every day!